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Associations between fat and carbohydrate intake and cardiovascular disease and mortality

THE LANCET* - Articles - link

VOLUME 390, ISSUE 10107, P2050-2062, NOVEMBER 04, 2017

Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE**): a prospective cohort study***


High carbohydrate intake was associated with higher risk of total mortality, whereas total fat and individual types of fat were related to lower total mortality. Total fat and types of fat were not associated with cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular disease mortality, whereas saturated fat had an inverse association with stroke. Global dietary guidelines should be reconsidered in light of these findings.

*The Lancet is a prestigious medical journal that publishes original research, reviews, and other scholarly articles covering a wide range of medical and health-related topics. It is one of the oldest and most influential medical journals globally, with a reputation for publishing high-quality and groundbreaking research. The Lancet covers various disciplines within medicine, including clinical medicine, public health, and global health. It serves as a platform for researchers, clinicians, policymakers, and other healthcare professionals to share their findings, contribute to medical knowledge, and advance healthcare practices worldwide. The journal has a rigorous peer-review process to ensure the quality and validity of the published articles. It plays a significant role in shaping medical practice, policy decisions, and public health strategies.

**PURE stands for Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology. It is a large-scale international research study conducted across multiple countries and continents. The PURE study aims to investigate the relationship between lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, and various health outcomes in diverse populations, including both urban and rural areas. The study collects comprehensive data on participants' demographics, lifestyle habits, dietary patterns, physical activity, and medical history, among other factors. The research findings from the PURE study provide valuable insights into the global burden of diseases, risk factors, and effective strategies for disease prevention and health promotion.

***A prospective cohort study is a type of observational study used in epidemiology and medical research. In this study design, a group of individuals without a specific outcome of interest is identified and followed over time to observe the occurrence of that outcome. The researchers gather information on exposure factors and potential risk factors at the beginning of the study when the participants are free from the outcome being studied.

The participants are then followed longitudinally for a period of time, during which their exposure status and health outcomes are assessed at regular intervals. The researchers collect data on various variables such as lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, genetic factors, and medical history. This allows them to examine the association between specific exposures or risk factors and the development of outcomes or diseases.

Prospective cohort studies are valuable for studying the incidence of diseases, identifying risk factors, and assessing the cause-and-effect relationship between exposures and outcomes. They can provide important evidence on the natural history of diseases, help identify potential preventive measures, and guide public health interventions. The follow-up period in prospective cohort studies can range from months to several decades, depending on the research question and the nature of the outcome being studied.

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